The perception of body signals play a crucial role in cognition and emotion, which may lead to catastrophic outcomes when it becomes dysfunctional. To characterize these mechanisms and intervene on interoception for either diagnostic or treatment purposes, a mounting body of research is concerned with interventions on interoceptive channels such as respiration, cardioception, or thermoception. However, we are still lacking a mechanistic understanding of the underlying psychophysiology. For example, interoceptive signals are often both the cause and consequences of some distress in various mental disorders, and it is still unclear how interoceptive signals bind with exteroceptive cues. In this article, we present existing technologies for manipulating interoception and review their clinical potential in light of the predictive processing framework describing interoception as a process of minimization of prediction errors. We distinguish between three kinds of stimuli: artificial sensations that concern the direct manipulation of interoceptive signals, interoceptive illusions that manipulate contextual cues to induce a predictable drift in body perception, and emotional augmentation technologies that blend artificial sensations with contextual cues of personal significance to generate specific moods or emotions. We discuss how each technology can assess and intervene on the precision-weighting of prediction errors along the cognitive and emotional processing hierarchy and conclude by discussing the clinical relevance of interoceptive technologies in terms of diagnostic stress tests for evaluating interoceptive abilities across clinical conditions and as intervention protocols for conditions such as generalized anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and autism spectrum disorders.
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