The human pineal gland regulates day‐night dynamics of multiple physiological processes, especially through the secretion of melatonin. Using mass‐spectrometry‐based proteomics and dedicated analysis tools, we identify proteins in the human pineal gland and analyze systematically their variation throughout the day and compare these changes in the pineal proteome between control specimens and donors diagnosed with autism. Results reveal diverse regulated clusters of proteins with, among others, catabolic carbohydrate process and cytoplasmic membrane‐bounded vesicle‐related proteins differing between day and night and/or control versus autism pineal glands. These data show novel and unexpected processes happening in the human pineal gland during the day/night rhythm as well as specific differences between autism donor pineal glands and those from controls.
Keywords: antioxidant, autism spectrum disorders, chaperon proteins, circadian rhythm, energy production, mass spectrometry, pineal gland